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Bicoid, a classic developmental morphogen, diffuses within the syncytium, but this one is a special case. Gradients of RAN.GTP from mitotic chromatin and Aurora B activity from chromatin v M phase and mid-zones in cytokinesis are classic cell signals that we now know organize space inside the cells using the reaction-diffusion mechanism.
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I attribute this concept to Eric Karsenti, who came up with the idea of signals diffusing away from DNA in eggs in the mid-1980s. However, it was not demonstrated until the development of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). biosensor activities in the last decade2,3.
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Daniel St Johnston. Several surprising concepts have emerged over the past decade: first, the amazing extent to which basic cell biological processes have been preserved during the evolution of eukaryotes; second, to what extent gene regulation is post-transcriptional, esp through small non-coding RNAs; third, how basic cellular processes such as Endocyte.