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We all know that all living things are made up of cells and here comes the question of how cells are made. The composition of cellular DNA has blueprints for building cells along with information about the production of proteins, carbohydrates, and vitamins in the cell. Figure 0.1 The DNA double helix The DNA molecule is a double-helical structure containing base pairs composed of nucleotides and these nucleotides are composed of a sugar-phosphate group and are hydrogen bonded to each other bonds.
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If we talk about the composition of DNA and RNA molecules, they are composed of four other molecules that are named nucleotides. These molecules are adenine (A), cytosine (C), thymine (T), uracil (U), and guanine (G).
Although the DNA molecule is double-stranded and RNA is single-stranded, there is a different sugar composition.
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Adenine and guanine are collectively called purines, while cytosine, uracil, and thymine are called as
Pyrimidine. when a phosphate, a nitrogenous base, and a sugar combine, if (OH) is present, the molecule is RNA
and if it is in sugar (H), the molecule is DNA. As the picture shows.
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A DNA molecule contains only four base pairs (A, T, C, and G) with thousands of repeats time,s and adenine “A” pairs with cytosine “C” while thymine “T” pairs with guanine “G” and all pairing take place via hydrogen bonding. Like DNA, RNA contains four base pairs, but thymine is replaced by uracil “U” and RNA is single-stranded. The process of transcription decodes these bases in DNA Based on the information obtained after decoding the DNA, the RNA molecule is encoded.